COVID-19 and Various Comorbidities: A Review
COVID-19 and Various Comorbidities
Keywords:COVID-19, Comorbidities, Hypertension, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases, Symptoms
Coronavirus currently known as COVID-19, originating from China in December 2019 had caused several severe unusual respiratory illnesses. This virus had spreads among individuals and had now developed into a great pandemic worldwide. More than 50% of COVID-19 patients have at least one comorbidity. Among the people suffering from COVID-19, hypertension is ought to be the most prevalent disease followed by diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, liver, and kidney diseases. Furthermore, older individuals (>60 years) are more likely to possess multi-morbidities, therefore, are more prone to the infection caused by the COVID-19. The underlying mechanism of this virus in the still contradictory. The health care sector can manage the symptoms of COVID-19 and comorbidities associated with it with help of management and treatment strategies underlined by the WHO. As it is of utmost need to identify the risk factors and critical clinical outcomes linked with COVID-19 so that the proper steps could be adopted in the future This review extensively elaborates the relationship between COVID-19 and various comorbidities based on up-to-date data extracted from reputed journals and official websites.
Sanyaolu A, Okorie C, Marinkovic A, Patidar R, Younis K, Desai P, et al. Comorbidity and its impact on patients with COVID-19. SN Comprehensive Clinical Medicine. 2020 Aug; 2(8): 1069-76. doi: 10.1007/s42399-020-00363-4.
Roser M, Ritchie H, Ortiz-Ospina E, Hasell J. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19)–Statistics and research. Our World in Data. 2020 Mar; 4: 1-45.
Macera M, De Angelis G, Sagnelli C, Coppola N, Vanvitelli COVID-19 Group. Clinical presentation of COVID-19: case series and review of the literature. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020 Jul; 17(14): 5062. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17145062.
Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet. 2020 Feb; 395(10223): 497-506. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5.
Ejaz H, Alsrhani A, Zafar A, Javed H, Junaid K, Abdalla AE, et al. COVID-19 and comorbidities: Deleterious impact on infected patients. Journal of Infection and Public Health. 2020 Dec; 13(12): 1833-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jiph.2020.07.014.
Ye C, Zhang S, Zhang X, Cai H, Gu J, Lian J, et al. Impact of comorbidities on patients with COVID‐19: a large retrospective study in Zhejiang, China. Journal of Medical Virology. 2020 Nov; 92(11): 2821-9. doi: 10.1002/jmv.26183.
Lv Z and Lv S. Clinical characteristics and analysis of risk factors for disease progression of COVID-19: A retrospective Cohort Study. International Journal of Biological Sciences. 2021 Jan; 17(1): 1-7. doi: 10.7150/ijbs.50654.
Sharma RK, Li J, Krishnan S, Richards EM, Raizada MK, Mohandas R. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and COVID-19 in cardiorenal diseases. Clinical Science. 2021 Jan; 135(1): 1-7. doi: 10.1042/CS20200482.
Barrera FJ, Shekhar S, Wurth R, Moreno-Pena PJ, Ponce OJ, Hajdenberg M, et al. Prevalence of diabetes and hypertension and their associated risks for poor outcomes in Covid-19 patients. Journal of the Endocrine Society. 2020 Sep; 4(9): bvaa102. doi: 10.1210/jendso/bvaa102.
Russo V, Piccinocchi G, Mandaliti V, Annunziata S, Cimmino G, Attena E, et al. Cardiovascular comorbidities and pharmacological treatments of COVID-19 patients not requiring hospitalization. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021 Jan; 18(1): 102. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18010102.
Baradaran A, Ebrahimzadeh MH, Baradaran A, Kachooei AR. Prevalence of comorbidities in COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery. 2020 Apr; 8(Suppl 1): 247. doi: 10.22038/abjs.2020.47754.2346.
Kario K, Morisawa Y, Sukonthasarn A, Turana Y, Chia YC, Park S, et al. COVID‐19 and hypertension—evidence and practical management: guidance from the HOPE Asia network. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension. 2020 Jul; 22(7): 1109-19. doi: 10.1111/jch.13917.
Huda MS, Shaho S, Trivedi B, Fraterrigo G, Chandrarajan L, Zolfaghari P, et al. Diabetic emergencies during the COVID‐19 pandemic: A case–control study. Diabetic Medicine. 2021 Jan; 38(1): e14416. doi: 10.1111/dme.14416.
Ouchetto O and Bourhanbour AD. Risk Factors of COVID-19 Patients. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness. 2022 Aug; 16(4): 1300-2. doi: 10.1017/dmp.2021.7.
Miyazawa D. Why obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and ethnicities are common risk factors for COVID‐19 and H1N1 influenza infections. Journal of Medical Virology. 2021 Jan; 93(1): 127-28. doi: 10.1002/jmv.26220.
Zhao Q, Meng M, Kumar R, Wu Y, Huang J, Lian N, et al. The impact of COPD and smoking history on the severity of COVID‐19: A systemic review and meta‐analysis. Journal of Medical Virology. 2020 Oct; 92(10): 1915-21. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25889.
Yohannes AM. COPD patients in a COVID-19 society: depression and anxiety. Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine. 2021 Jan; 15(1): 5-7. doi: 10.1080/17476348.2020.1787835.
Harky A, Chor CY, Nixon H, Jeilani M. The controversy of using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers in COVID-19 patients. Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System. 2021 Jan; 22(1): 1470320320987118. doi: 10.1177/1470320320987118.
ERA-EDTA Council and ERACODA Working Group. Chronic kidney disease is a key risk factor for severe COVID-19: a call to action by the ERA-EDTA. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. 2021 Jan; 36(1): 87-94. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfaa314.
Oyelade T, Alqahtani J, Canciani G. Prognosis of COVID-19 in patients with liver and kidney diseases: an early systematic review and meta-analysis. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease. 2020 May; 5(2): 80. doi: 10.3390/tropicalmed5020080.
Callender LA, Curran M, Bates SM, Mairesse M, Weigandt J, Betts CJ. The impact of pre-existing comorbidities and therapeutic interventions on COVID-19. Frontiers in Immunology. 2020 Aug; 11: 1991. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.01991.
Alshukry A, Ali H, Ali Y, Al-Taweel T, Abu-Farha M, AbuBaker J, et al. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in Kuwait. PloS one. 2020 Nov; 15(11): e0242768. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0242768.
Mahdavinia M, Foster KJ, Jauregui E, Moore D, Adnan D, Andy-Nweye AB, et al. Asthma prolongs intubation in COVID-19. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: Practice. 2020 Jul; 8(7): 2388-91. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2020.05.006.
Chhiba KD, Patel GB, Vu TH, Chen MM, Guo A, Kudlaty E, et al. Prevalence and characterization of asthma in hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2020 Aug; 146(2): 307-14. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2020.06.010.
Hughes-Visentin A and Paul AB. Asthma and COVID-19: what do we know now. Clinical Medicine Insights: Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine. 2020 Oct; 14: 1179548420966242. doi: 10.1177/1179548420966242.
Jackson DJ, Busse WW, Bacharier LB, Kattan M, O’Connor GT, Wood RA, et al. Association of respiratory allergy, asthma, and expression of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2020 Jul; 146(1): 203-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2020.04.009.
Morais-Almeida M, Aguiar R, Martin B, Ansotegui IJ, Ebisawa M, Arruda LK, et al. COVID-19, asthma, and biological therapies: what we need to know. World Allergy Organization Journal. 2020 May; 13(5): 100126. doi: 10.1016/j.waojou.2020.100126.
Xu Z, Shi L, Wang Y, Zhang J, Huang L, Zhang C, et al. Pathological findings of COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine. 2020 Apr; 8(4): 420-2. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30076-X.
Bangash MN, Patel J, Parekh D. COVID-19 and the liver: little cause for concern. The lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology. 2020 Jun; 5(6): 529-30. doi: 10.1016/S2468-1253(20)30084-4.
Chau TN, Lee KC, Yao H, Tsang TY, Chow TC, Yeung YC, et al. SARS‐associated viral hepatitis caused by a novel coronavirus: report of three cases. Hepatology. 2004 Feb ;39(2): 302-10. doi: 10.1002/hep.20111.
Razavi AC, Kelly TN, He J, Fernandez C, Whelton PK, Krousel‐Wood M, et al. cardiovascular disease prevention and implications of coronavirus disease 2019: an evolving case study in the Crescent City. Journal of the American Heart Association. 2020 Jul; 9(13): e016997. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.120.016997.
Bansal M. Cardiovascular disease and COVID-19. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 2020 May; 14(3): 247-50. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2020.03.013.
Siepmann T, Sedghi A, Barlinn J, Mirow L, Wolz M, Gruenewald T, et al. Association of history of cerebrovascular disease with severity of COVID-19. Journal of Neurology. 2021 Mar; 268(3): 773-84. doi: 10.1007/s00415-020-10121-0.
Addeo A, and Friedlaender A. Cancer and COVID-19: Unmasking their ties. Cancer Treatment Reviews. 2020 Aug; 88: 102041. doi: 10.1016/j.ctrv.2020.102041.
Liang W, Guan W, Chen R, Wang W, Li J, Xu K, et al. Cancer patients in SARS-CoV-2 infection: a nationwide analysis in China. The Lancet Oncology. 2020 Mar; 21(3): 335-7. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30096-6.
Al-Quteimat OM, Amer AM. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer patients. American Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2020 Apr: 1-4. doi: 10.1097/COC.0000000000000712.
Bajgain KT, Badal S, Bajgain BB, Santana MJ. Prevalence of comorbidities among individuals with COVID-19: A rapid review of current literature. American Journal of Infection Control. 2021 Feb; 49(2): 238-46. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2020.06.213.
Zhang H, Xie C, Huang Y. Treatment and outcome of a patient with lung cancer infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. Journal of Thoracic Oncology. 2020 May; 15(5): e63-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jtho.2020.02.025.
Williamson EJ, Walker AJ, Bhaskaran K, Bacon S, Bates C, Morton CE, et al. Factors associated with COVID-19-related death using OpenSAFELY. Nature. 2020 Aug; 584(7821): 430-6. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2521-4.
Zheng Z, Peng F, Xu B, Zhao J, Liu H, Peng J, et al. Risk factors of critical & mortal COVID-19 cases: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Journal of Infection. 2020 Aug; 81(2): e16-25. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2020.04.021.
Ortolan A, Lorenzin M, Felicetti M, Doria A, Ramonda R. Does gender influence clinical expression and disease outcomes in COVID-19? A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2020 Oct; 99: 496-504. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2020.07.076.
Richardson S, Hirsch JS, Narasimhan M, Crawford JM, McGinn T, Davidson KW, et al. Presenting characteristics, comorbidities, and outcomes among 5700 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the New York City area. JAMA. 2020 May; 323(20): 2052-9. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.6775.
Fang X, Li S, Yu H, Wang P, Zhang Y, Chen Z, et al. Epidemiological, comorbidity factors with severity and prognosis of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Aging (albany NY). 2020 Jul; 12(13): 12493. doi: 10.18632/aging.103579.
Hasell J, Mathieu E, Beltekian D, Macdonald B, Giattino C, Ortiz-Ospina E, et al. A cross-country database of COVID-19 testing. Scientific Data. 2020 Oct; 7(1): 1-7. doi: 10.1038/s41597-020-00688-8.
Zhang L, Zhu F, Xie L, Wang C, Wang J, Chen R, et al. Clinical characteristics of COVID-19-infected cancer patients: a retrospective case study in three hospitals within Wuhan, China. Annals of Oncology. 2020 Jul; 31(7): 894-901. doi: 10.1016/j.annonc.2020.03.296.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
This is an open-access journal and all the published articles / items are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. For comments